The levying of tolls for the use of certain highways in Gauteng, the so called e-tolls, took effect on 3 December 2013.
It is therefore appropriate to consider the income tax consequences arising from the payment of e-tolls in those cases where an employee is reimbursed for business travelling or is provided with a vehicle owned by their employer or where an employee receives a travelling allowance to finance the expenditure incurred whilst travelling on the employer’s business.
In addition, brief reference will be made to the income tax consequences facing fleet owners and cartage contractors.
Reimbursement at prescribed rate
An employer may decide not to provide an allowance for travelling to their employees nor a company owned vehicle and instead reimburse staff for the actual distance travelled on the business of the employer.
Where an employee travels on the employer’s business and does not exceed 8 000 kilometres during a year of assessment and the employee does not receive any other compensation from the employer in the form of a further allowance or reimbursement, the prescribed rate per kilometre, which may be paid without attracting income tax, is R3.24.
The rate per kilometre was set before e-tolls became effective and future regulations governing the amount payable by an employer to an employee for travelling on the employers business should be clarified to provide that the employer may reimburse the employee in respect of the cost of e-tolls.
Currently, the rate per kilometre fixed for purposes of section 8(1)(b)(iii) of the Income Tax Act, No. 58 of 1962 (‘the Act’) provides that the amount of R3.24 may only be paid without any adverse tax consequence arising when no other compensation in the form of a further allowance or reimbursement is payable by the employer to the recipient of the reimbursement at the specified rate.
The payment of the allowance is also not subject to VAT as a fringe benefit in terms of section 18(3) of the VAT Act.
Company Owned Vehicle
Where the employer owns or leases a motor vehicle and makes that available to an employee the employee will be subject to fringe benefits tax on the value and usage of that vehicle in the manner set out in paragraph 7 of the Seventh Schedule to the Act.
In principle, the employee is subject to fringe benefits tax at a rate of 3.5% of the determined value of the motor vehicle for each month for which the employee is provided with the use of the vehicle by their employer.
The determined value of the vehicle for fringe benefits tax purposes is normally the cash cost thereof, including VAT. In the event that the motor vehicle, at the time of acquisition, is the subject of a maintenance plan, the rate of fringe benefits is reduced to 3.25% of the determined value of the motor vehicle on a monthly basis.
In the case of an employer owned vehicle, the vehicle will be owned by the employer and thus the employer will be liable to pay the e-tolls to the extent that the motor vehicle in question travels on tolled highways.
The employer will be entitled to deduct the cost of e-tolls as an expense incurred in the production of income in that it relates directly to the provision of the motor vehicle by an employer to an employee for purposes of its business.
The employer will, so long as the travelling was for the purpose of making taxable supplies and they receive a valid tax invoice which complies with the provisions of section 20 of the Value-added Tax Act, Act No. 89 of 1991,(‘VAT Act’), be entitled to recover the VAT paid on the e-tolls as an input credit when submitting its VAT returns to SARS.
Where the employee retains accurate records of business distance travelled it will be possible to reduce the taxability of the fringe benefit by taking account of the ratio of business kilometres to total kilometres travelled by the employee.
Furthermore, where the employee pays for certain expenses relating to the motor vehicle, the value of the taxable fringe benefit may be reduced by taking account of the business kilometres travelled as a proportion of the total kilometres travelled during the tax year.
In accordance with the provisions of the Fourth Schedule to the Act the employer is required to deduct PAYE on 80% of the value of the fringe benefit arising from the use of the employer owned vehicle unless the employer is satisfied that at least 80% of the employee’s travel is related to the business of the employer. In these cases the PAYE deduction is based on 20% of the value of fringe benefit in question.
Employee Owned Motor Vehicle
In this case the employee will receive an allowance as part and parcel of their remuneration package with the result that the travelling allowance received will be subject to PAYE such that 80% of the allowance paid per month will attract PAYE.
Where the employer can be satisfied that 80% or more of the travelling undertaken by the employee is for business purposes only 20% of the allowance paid will attract PAYE.
It is essential for the employee to retain a log book recording distance travelled on the business of the employer and the nature thereof so that they may determine the total business kilometres travelled during the tax year and that portion of travelling with constitutes private travel for which no deduction is available.
When the employee completes their annual tax return they will be entitled to claim expenditure regarding the motor vehicle against the allowance received by taking account of actual business kilometres travelled during the tax year.
The taxpayer is entitled to use either actual costs incurred in respect of operating the motor vehicle during the tax year or alternatively may rely on the table of costs prescribed by the Minister of Finance.
Where the employee chooses to claim expenditure based on actual expenditure incurred they will be entitled to take account of the cost of insurance, maintenance and other direct costs relating to the operation of the motor vehicle including fuel, depreciation on the motor vehicle and the cost of e-tolls.
The table of costs prescribed by the Minister takes account of the fixed cost attributable to the motor vehicle which is an attempt to recognise the depreciation in the value of the a motor vehicle depending on the cost thereof as well as the fuel cost and maintenance cost.
The table of costs currently in existence does not take account of the cost of e-tolls.
The table of costs is unlikely to be amended because e-tolls are only applicable on certain highways in Gauteng and not in South Africa generally.
The alternative for the employee is to seek the reimbursement of the actual e-toll costs incurred from the employer in respect of business travelling.
This will be neutral for tax purposes from the employee’s point of view.
The employer should be entitled to claim the reimbursement of e-toll costs as a deduction for income tax purposes under section 11(a) of the Act.
Where an employer reimburses an employee who travelled for taxable business purposes for e-toll costs that employer will be entitled to recover the VAT relating thereto even though the tax invoice will be issued in the name of the employee and not in the name of the employer.
This is based on the provisions of sections 16(2)(a) and 54 of the VAT Act which regulates the position of input tax borne by an agent on behalf of their principal.
Also, section 20(5) of the VAT Act does not require that the name, address and VAT registration number of the employer be reflected on a tax invoice where the consideration for the supply does not exceed R5 000.
Fleet owners and cartage contractors
Those businesses which own a large number of vehicles, such as the car rental companies will face an increase in their operating costs as a result of the introduction of e-tolls.
Similarly, the transport contractors will experience an increase in their costs of moving goods around the country as a result of the imposition of e-tolls.
The cost of e-tolls are directly related to the business conducted by such taxpayers and will be deductible under section 11(a) of the Act.
Where the affected businesses are registered for VAT, they will be entitled to recover the VAT incurred on the e-tolls if the vehicles were used in the course of making taxable supplies and so long as they are in possession of a valid tax invoice which meets the requirements of section 20 of the VAT Act.
The introduction of e-tolls will no doubt result in an increase in the cost of goods transported by road which will ultimately be carried by the consumer in South Africa.
Where an employee receives a reimbursement of travelling at a rate not exceeding the amount specified by the Minister of Finance it may be possible to seek the reimbursement of e-toll costs without adverse tax consequences.
However, it would be preferable if the rules regulating such reimbursement are clarified in this regard.
In the case of a company or employer owned vehicle, the employer will be liable to pay the e-tolls and should be entitled to deduct that cost as a deduction for tax purposes.
No adverse tax consequences should arise in so far as the employee is concerned who is subject to fringe benefits tax on the usage of the motor vehicle in any event.
In those cases where an employee receives a travelling allowance to finance the cost of travelling on the employer’s business a decision will need to be made whether to claim the actual expenditure incurred regarding the motor vehicle, including the cost of e-tolls or to rely on the table of prescribed costs as set out by the Minister of Finance from time to time.
Those businesses which own a fleet of vehicles for renting out to clients or which own trucks to transport goods around the country will face an increase in costs which will, no doubt, be recovered from their clients.
The cost of e-tolls will be deductible for tax purposes in terms of section 11(a) and the VAT element should be recoverable where the business is registered for VAT purposes and the vehicle is used for taxable business purposes.
Dr Beric Croome, Tax Executive, Edward Nathan Sonnenbergs Inc. This article first appeared in Business Day, Business Law and Tax Review, February 2014.